To determine how normal gait patterns may change as a result of chronic anterior cruciate ligament deﬁciency and subsequent reconstructive surgery.
Gait testing of 10 chronic anterior cruciate ligament deﬁcient subjects prior to and 3 months following reconstructive surgery, and 10 uninjured controls.
There is controversy whether persons with chronic anterior cruciate ligament deﬁciency develop a ‘‘quadriceps avoidance’’ pattern and how anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery inﬂuences gait mechanics in these same individuals.
Gait analysis was employed to determine kinematic, kinetic, and muscle Electromyographic data.
Prior to surgery, no anterior cruciate ligament deﬁcient subject exhibited a quadriceps avoidance pattern. Following surgery, the subjects exhibited a signiﬁcantly greater knee extensor moment during early stance as compared to the control group. Prior to and following surgery, anterior cruciate ligament deﬁcient subjects demonstrated a signiﬁcantly greater hip extensor moment possibly to reduce anterior tibial translation.
These data suggest that (1) development of a quadriceps avoidance pattern is less common than previously reported, (2) anterior cruciate ligament deﬁcient subjects accommodate through alterations of hip joint mechanics, (3) surgical repair signiﬁcantly alters lower extremity gait patterns, and (4) re-establishment of pre-injury gait patterns takes longer than 3 months to occur.